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Gambling Survey for Great Britain - Year 1 (2023), wave 1 report: Official statistics

Gambling Survey for Great Britain - Year 1 (2023), wave 1 report

Published: 29 February 2024

Last updated: 4 July 2024

This version was printed or saved on: 18 July 2024

Online version: https://www.gamblingcommission.gov.uk/report/gambling-survey-for-great-britain-year-1-2023-wave-1-report

Content of this report

This report contains detail of the response rates achieved and weighting strategy for Year 1, wave 1 of the Gambling Survey for Great Britain (GSGB), fieldwork for which was carried out between 31 July 2023 and 16 November 2023.

Detail on the background to the survey, the methodology, sampling strategy, and questionnaire content are provided in the Gambling Survey for Great Britain - technical report.

Data tables are provided in Statistics on gambling participation – Year 1 (2023), Wave 1 .

The online and postal questionnaires for Year 1, wave 1 are provided in Appendix A – Online questionnaire and Appendix B – Postal questionnaire of this report.

Response to the survey

Data tables are provided in Statistics on gambling participation – Year 1 (2023), Wave 1 .

Address-level response rates

Table A.1: Address-level response summarises the address-level response rates. In total, 18,776 addresses were issued. In remote surveys (that is where participants complete the survey independently without any involvement from an interviewer), no information is known about the reason for non-response in individual addresses. However, it was assumed that around 9 percent of addresses in the sample (1,690) were not residential and were therefore ineligible to complete the survey1.

Table A.1: Address-level response (summarises the address-level response rates)

Table A.1: Address-level response
Response of issued addresses Total addresses: (number) Total addresses: (percentage) Total eligible: (percentage)
Issued addresses 18776 100% Not applicable
Assumed ineligible 1690 9% Not applicable
Assumed eligible (residential addresses) 17086 91% 100%
Refusal or unable to take part 24 0% 0%
No response 13833 74% 81%
Productive addresses 3229 17% 19%

In total, 3,229 addresses were productive. The adjusted address-level response rate, that is the proportion of eligible addresses where a questionnaire was completed by at least one adult in eligible addresses, was 19 percent (lower than the target of 22 percent). There was no response from 13,833 of the addresses assumed to be eligible and an individual from a further 24 addresses contacted the office to say they did not wish or were unable to take part.

Table A.2: Address-level response, by country shows the breakdown of the issued sample in England, Scotland and Wales and the household response rate in each country. In total, 86 percent of the issued addresses were in England, 9 percent in Scotland and 5 percent in Wales. Household responding rates were very similar across all 3 countries: 19 percent in England, 18 percent in Scotland and 18 percent in Wales.

Table A.2: Address-level response, by country

Table A.2 Address-level response, by country
Country Total issued addresses: (number) Total issued addresses: (percentage) Total assumed eligible addresses:(number) Total assumed eligible addresses: (percentage) Total productive addresses: (number) Household response rate: (percentage)
England 16106 86% 14658 86% 2790 19%
Scotland 1734 9% 1578 9% 285 18%
Wales 934 5% 850 5% 154 18%
All addresses 18776 100% 17086 100% 3229 19%

In terms of the English regions, the highest response rates were achieved in the South East (22 percent), South West (22 percent), North East (21 percent) and East Midlands (21 percent) and the lowest in London (15 percent) and North West (17 percent) as shown in Table A.3: Address-level response, by Government Office Region.

Table A.3: Address-level response, by Government Office Region

Table A.3, Address-level response, by Government Office Region
Government Office Region Total issued addresses: (number) Total issued addresses: (percentage) Total assumed eligible addresses:(number) Total assumed eligible addresses: (percentage) Total productive addresses: (number) Household response rate: (percentage)
North East 811 4% 738 4% 155 21%
North West 2178 12% 1982 12% 340 17%
Yorkshire and the Humber 1591 8% 1448 8% 280 19%
East Midlands 1392 7% 1267 7% 260 21%
West Midlands 1647 9% 1499 9% 265 18%
East of England 1788 10% 1627 10% 318 20%
London 2406 13% 2189 13% 319 15%
South East 2604 14% 2370 14% 518 22%
South West 1691 9% 1539 9% 335 22%
Scotland 1734 9% 1578 9% 285 18%
Wales 934 5% 850 5% 154 18%
All addresses 18776 100% 17086 100% 3229 19%

Individual-level response rates

Following the process of removing duplicate responses2, cases deemed to have completed the online questionnaire too quickly to have properly engaged with the questions and cases above the maximum 2 completions per household, it was assumed that all responses in the dataset were from 4,801 unique individuals who had completed the questionnaire.

Table A.4: Individual-level response, by age and sex

Table A.4: Individual-level response, by age and sex
Age group (years) Total participants: male (percentage) Total participants: female (percentage) Total participants: all (percentage) Total Great Britain population: adult males (percentage) Total Great Britain population: adult females (percentage) Total Great Britain population: adult all (percentage)
18 to 24 4% 7% 5% 11% 10% 10%
25 to 34 14% 17% 15% 17% 17% 17%
35 to 44 16% 17% 16% 16% 16% 16%
45 to 54 14% 15% 15% 17% 16% 17%
55 to 64 16% 18% 17% 16% 16% 16%
65 to 74 20% 16% 18% 13% 13% 13%
75 plus 16% 11% 13% 10% 12% 11%
Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
Unweighted bases 2124 2668 4792 25,005,805 26,712,827 51,718,632

Table A.4: Individual response, by age and sex shows the age and sex profile of the 4,801 responding adults who completed the questionnaire (2,124 men, 2,668 women and 9 participants who did not respond to the age and/or sex questions). In total, 44 percent of the responding unweighted sample were men and 56 percent were women. This under-representation of men is similar to that seen in the latest published results for other surveys with the same completion modes, for example, the British Social Attitudes (BSA) 2023 survey BSA 40 Technical details (natcen.ac.uk) (opens in a new Tab)(pdf). In total, 44 percent of the BSA 2023 unweighted main sample were men and 56 percent women.

Those in the younger age groups were less likely to take part than their older counterparts: 5 percent of responding adults were aged 18 to 24 years (this age group makes up 10 percent of the adult population of Great Britain) and 18 percent were aged 65 to 74 years (this age group makes up 13 percent of the adult population of Great Britain).

This difference was particularly pronounced for men: 4 percent of the male sample were aged 18 to 24 years (this age-sex group makes up 11 percent of the male adult population of Great Britain). The equivalent proportions for women aged 18 to 24 years were 7 percent and 10 percent. The national percentages are based on the 2021 mid-year population estimates for Great Britain: Estimates of the population for the UK, England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) (opens in a new Tab).

Table A.5: Individual-level response, by mode of completion and sex

Table A.5: Individual-level response, by mode of completion and sex
Sex Individual-level response: Online completions (percentage) Individual-level response: Postal completions (percentage) Individual-level response: Total completions (number)
Male 64% 36% 2124
Female 64% 36% 2668
All participants 64% 36% 4801
Unweighted bases 3069 1732 4801

Table A.5: Individual response, by mode of completion and sex shows response rates by mode of completion, overall and for men and women separately. Overall, 64 percent (3,069) completed the survey online and 36 percent (1,732) completed a postal questionnaire. These results are broadly in line with expectations, based on experience of previous surveys.

There was no overall difference between men and women in the mode of completion. However, there was a marked difference according to age with the percentage of those completing the survey online decreasing with age (and hence the percentage completing the postal questionnaire increasing with age). In all age groups, except the oldest two (aged 65 to 74 and aged 75 and over), a higher proportion completed the survey online rather than filling in the postal questionnaire. In total, 47 percent of those aged 65 to 74 and 31 percent of those aged 75 and over completed the survey online compared to those in the younger age groups, whose online completion was between 56 percent and 88 percent, as shown in Table A.6: Individual response, by mode of completion and age.

Table A.6: Individual response, by mode of completion and age

Table A.6: Individual response, by mode of completion and age
Age group (years) Individual-level response: Online completions (percentage) Individual-level response: Postal completions (percentage) Individual-level response: Total completions (number)
18 to 24 87% 13% 263
25 to 34 88% 12% 743
35 to 44 82% 18% 777
45 to 54 70% 30% 699
55 to 64 56% 44% 819
65 to 74 47% 53% 875
75 plus 31% 69% 625
Unweighted bases 3069 1732 4801

The mode of survey completion was similar for those who participated in gambling in the past 4 weeks and those who did not. A higher proportion completed the online survey compared to the postal survey in both groups, with 65 percent of those who gambled in the past 4 weeks and 64 percent of those who did not gamble in the past 4 weeks completing the survey online as shown in Table A.7: Individual response, by mode of completion and gambling prevalence in the past four weeks.

Table A.7: Individual response, by mode of completion and gambling prevalence in the past four weeks

Table A.7: Individual response, by mode of completion and gambling prevalence in the past four weeks
Gambling prevalence in the past four weeks Individual-level response: Online completions (percentage) Individual-level response: Postal completions (percentage) Individual-level response: Total completions (number)
Gambled in the past four weeks 65% 35% 2229
Not gambled in the past four weeks 64% 36% 2509
Unweighted bases 3063 1675 4738

1When estimating the proportion of ineligible addresses on an online survey, it is best practice to assume the same ineligibility rate as a recent face-to-face survey which uses the same sample frame and sampling approach and for which detailed outcomes are known for the entire issued sample. Ineligibility rates in Postcode Address File (PAF) face-to-face surveys tend to fall between 8 percent and 10 percent and 9 percent is the rate recorded in the most recent face-to-face British Social Attitudes Survey (2019) and has been used as an appropriate default for this survey.

2Where either a single participant completed the survey a second time or where more than two people in a household completed the survey (for example, two completing the survey online and two different people completing postal questionnaires.

Questionnaire completion times

All data tables are provided in Statistics on gambling participation – Year 1 (2023), Wave 1 .

The aim was for the online questionnaire to take an average of 20 minutes to complete. The mean time taken was shorter than this at 18 minutes: 22 minutes for those who had gambled in the last 4 weeks and 14 minutes for those who had not gambled in the last 4 weeks. The median time taken was lower than the mean: 14 minutes for all participants: 16 minutes for those who had gambled in the last 4 weeks and 11 minutes for those who had not gambled in the last 4 weeks3 as shown in Table A.8: Online questionnaire completion time, by gambling status.

Table A.8: Online questionnaire completion time, by gambling status

Table A.8: Online questionnaire completion time, by gambling status
Gambling status Mean (minutes) Median (minutes)
All participants completing online 18 14
Gambled in the past four weeks 22 16
Not gambled in the past four weeks 14 11
Unweighted bases 3069 3069

3Participant’s completion times were calculated by summing the time taken to answer each question that they answered, but with the time for each question capped at the high outlier value for that question.

Weighting strategy

The data was weighted to take account of non-response, bias, and improve representativeness. As there was no disproportionate sampling, selection weights were not required. The weighting method consisted of two stages4:

  1. a logistic regression model for number of responses within a household (run for households with more than one eligible adult), and

  2. a calibration to population estimates.

For the first stage, forward and backward stepwise logistic regression models were used to test which variables were associated with propensity to provide more than one response within a household. This model was run only for households with more than one eligible adult. Area-level variables (from the 2021 census for England and Wales and the 2011 census for Scotland) and household-level variables were tested. The final regression model included all variables that were significant in stepwise regressions: household tenure, household income, household type, index of multiple deprivation (IMD) percentiles (tertiles for England and bitiles5 for Wales and Scotland), 2021 output area classifications (for England and Wales only, as not yet available for Scotland), percentage of residents in National Statistics socio-economic classification (NS-SeC) categories 1 and 2 (interacted with a flag for Scotland, as the census 2021 and 2011 measures of NS-SeC had a different base), percentage of households that are owner occupiers, percentage of households with access to one or more cars, percentage of adult residents aged 55 years and over, and percentage of adult residents aged 65 years and over. Region of residence was also included in the model.

The predicted probabilities from this model were used to create response weights for households with more than one eligible adult. Weights were checked for outliers and left untrimmed. Weights for responding households with only one eligible adult were set to 1.

The response weights were then calibrated to estimates of the eligible population, residents of Great Britain aged 18 and over. Calibration weighting adjusts the weights so that characteristics of the weighted achieved sample match population estimates, reducing bias. The following variables were included in the calibration: age categories by sex, region, IMD percentiles (quintiles for England and bitiles for Wales and Scotland), tenure, and ethnicity.

Estimates of the GB population by age, sex, and region of residence were taken from Office for National Statistics (ONS) 2021 mid-year population estimates, which were for 2022 in England and Wales, and for 2021 in Scotland Population estimates for the UK, England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland - Office for National Statistics (opens in new tab). Population estimates for IMD percentiles within each country were taken from ONS England and Wales (opens in new tab) and National Records of Scotland (opens in new tab). Population estimates for tenure and ethnicity were taken from the most recent Labour Force Survey data available, which was gathered between April and June 2023 Labour Force Survey performance and quality monitoring report: April to June 2023 (opens in new tab).

After calibration, the weights were checked for outliers and left untrimmed. The final weight for the 4,801 productive individuals has a design effect of 1.25, an effective sample size of 3,854, and efficiency of 80 percent.


4This same method was also used to weight Experimental Phase data, with the notable difference that highest level of education has not been included in the calibration variables for official statistics data collection. This is because the qualification questions in the GSGB are too different to those included in the Labour Force Survey (LFS) to be confident that they are measuring the same thing. Both the Experimental Phase and GSGB year 1, wave 1 response datasets show significant divergence in education profiles compared to LFS estimates. Therefore, calibration to LFS estimates of education would not be reliable and has the potential to increase bias rather than reduce it. Alternative high quality estimates of education levels are not available.

5 Bitiles tertiles and quintiles refer to the number of percentiles the data is divide into. The data is divided into; two percentiles for Bitiles, three percentiles for tertiles and five percentiles for quintiles.

Appendix A - Online questionnaire

Respondents were given the opportunity to complete an online or paper version of the questionnaire. Some questions were asked only on the online version of the questionnaire and where this is the case, this has been specified.

Lifestyle questions

(The following question was asked only on the online version)

Age Check

(Ask all)

This survey is for adults aged 18 years and older. Please confirm that you are aged 18 years or older.

Responses include:

  1. Yes, I am aged 18 years or over
  2. No, I am under the age of 18 years

Leisure Activities

(Ask all)

In the past 4 weeks, which of the following activities, if any, did you do?

  1. Spent time with friends and/or family
  2. Read for pleasure
  3. Listen to music
  4. Watch TV
  5. Eat out at restaurants
  6. Go to pubs and/or bars and/or clubs
  7. Do DIY or gardening
  8. Go shopping (to the high street or shopping centre)
  9. Do sports or exercise
  10. Do arts or crafts
  11. Play a musical instrument or make music
  12. Go to the cinema, theatre or music concerts
  13. Visit museums or galleries
  14. Attend religious service and/or place of worship

Responses include:

  1. Yes
  2. No

Purpose of internet usage

In the past 4 weeks have you used the internet for any of the following?

Please select all that apply

  1. Communication, for example, email, instant messaging, video or telephone calls
  2. Using social media
  3. Watching TV or films, listening to the radio, using streaming services or watching short video clips
  4. Online shopping, or online banking
  5. Finding out information, including news, weather
  6. Travel or navigation
  7. Playing puzzle games online, for example, Suduko, Wordle
  8. Playing other games online
  9. Something else
  10. Have not used the internet in the past 4 weeks

Gambling participation questions

(Ask all)

Gambled in the past year

Have you spent money on any of the following activities, including online and in-person, in the last 12 months?

  1. Tickets for the National Lottery draws – Lotto, Euromillions, Thunderball, Hotpicks, Set for Life
  2. Tickets for other charity lotteries, including the Health Lottery, Postcode Lottery and other lotteries
  3. National Lottery scratchcards
  4. Other scratchcards
  5. National Lottery online instant win games
  6. Other online instant win games
  7. Betting on sports and racing online and/or via an App, including virtual sports and/or races and e-sports
  8. Betting on sports and racing in-person, for example at a bookmakers, including virtual sports and/or races and e-sports.
  9. Betting on the outcome of events such as TV shows, elections online and/or via an App
  10. Betting on the outcome of events such as TV shows, elections in-person, for example at a bookmakers
  11. Bingo played online and/or via an App
  12. Bingo played at a venue for example a bingo hall, social club
  13. Casino games played online and/or via an App for example Poker, Roulette, Blackjack
  14. Casino games played at a casino for example Poker, Roulette, Blackjack
  15. Casino games (for example Poker, Roulette, Blackjack) played on a machine and/or terminal in a venue for example casino, bookmakers, club, pub
  16. Fruit and/or slot machines played in-person
  17. Fruit and/or slot machines played online and/or via an App
  18. Football pools
  19. Private betting with for example friends, family, colleagues
  20. Another form of gambling in the last 12 months

Responses include:

  1. Yes
  2. No

If respondents did not gamble in the past year, they were routed forward to the gambling attitude questions.

(The following question was asked only on the online version)

If respondents gambled in the past year on ‘Another form of gambling’, they were required to answer the following.

Money spent on gambling activities in the past 12 months

During the past 12 months, which other gambling activities did you spend money on? (open text response)

If respondents gambled in the past year, they were required to answer the following.

Feelings towards gambling

Thinking about the last time you spent money on gambling (in essence, lotteries, scratchcards, betting, bingo, casino games or fruit and/or slot machines) how did you feel? Please provide a number between 0 and 10, with 0 indicating ‘hated it’ and 10 indicating ‘loved it’. (open numerical response)

If respondents gambled in the past year, they were required to answer the following.

Reasons for gambling

The following question lists reasons that some people have given about why they take part in the gambling activities listed earlier in the questionnaire. For each one, please state how often these are reasons why you take part in some of these activities. I take part in these activities…

  1. …for the chance of winning big money
  2. …because it’s fun
  3. …as a hobby or a pastime
  4. …to escape boredom or to fill my time
  5. …because I’m worried about not winning if I do not play
  6. …to compete with others (for example, bookmaker, other gamblers)
  7. …because it’s exciting
  8. …for the mental challenge or to learn about the game or activity
  9. …because of the sense of achievement when I win
  10. …to impress other people
  11. …to be sociable
  12. …because it helps when I’m feeling tense
  13. …to make money
  14. …to relax
  15. …because it’s something that I do with my friends or family

Responses include:

  1. Always
  2. Often
  3. Sometimes
  4. Never

(The following question was asked only on the online version)

If respondents gambled in the past year, they were required to answer the following.

Thinking only about the last time you took part in (a randomly selected activity that respondent has participated in is inserted here), how much do you agree or disagree with each of these statements?

  1. I enjoyed the game and/or the gamble itself
  2. I was confident I would win
  3. I took part with friends and/or family
  4. I was playing with 'free' money
  5. It was all down to chance (not skill)
  6. I had no idea if I'd win anything
  7. It was a high risk gamble
  8. I was competing against my friends and/or family
  9. It gave me a chance for some 'me' time
  10. Winning was a long shot
  11. The stars aligned for me to win
  12. It’s something that I enjoy doing with my friends and/or family
  13. I always do it
  14. I just had a feeling that I would win and/or I had a hunch
  15. It was a way to prove my skill with friends and/or family
  16. I usually do quite well from this activity
  17. It was a very solo activity

Responses include:

  1. Disagree strongly
  2. Disagree slightly
  3. Neither agree or disagree
  4. Agree slightly
  5. Agree strongly

(The following question was asked only on the online version)

If respondents gambled in the past year, they were required to answer the following.

Binge question 1

In the last 12 months, how often, if at all, have you ever experienced a moment when you spent more than you’d intended while gambling, or you ignored any spending limits you usually give yourself?

  1. Never
  2. Once or twice
  3. A few times
  4. Quite often

If respondents selected ‘Never’ to binge question 1, they were routed forward to the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) questions.

(The following question was asked only on the online version)

Binge question 2

In the last 12 months, would you say you’ve ever had a gambling ‘binge’?

  1. Yes
  2. No

If respondents selected ‘No’ to binge question 2, they were required to route to the PGSI questions.

(The following question was asked only on the online version)

Binge question 3

Thinking about the last time you had a gambling ‘binge’, how did you feel about it during, and afterwards?

  1. While you were gambling
  2. Afterwards

Responses include:

  1. Bad, I wish I hadn’t gambled as much as I did
  2. Neutral
  3. Good, I had a lot of fun

(The following question was asked only on the online version)

If respondents answered ‘Yes’ to binge question 2, they were required to answer the following question.

Binge question 4

Thinking about the last time you had a gambling ‘binge’, what activity or activities was it?

Please select all that apply

  1. Tickets for the National Lottery draws – Lotto, Euromillions, Thunderball, Hotpicks, Set for Life
  2. Tickets for other charity lotteries, including the Health Lottery, Postcode Lottery and other lotteries
  3. National Lottery scratchcards
  4. Other scratchcards
  5. National Lottery online instant win games
  6. Other online instant win games
  7. Betting on sports and racing online and/or via an App, including virtual sports and/or races and e-sports
  8. Betting on sports and racing in-person, for example at a bookmakers, including virtual sports and/or races and e-sports.
  9. Betting on the outcome of events such as TV shows, elections online and/or via an App
  10. Betting on the outcome of events such as TV shows, elections in-person, for example at a bookmakers
  11. Bingo played online and/or via an App
  12. Bingo played at a venue for example, a bingo hall, social club
  13. Casino games played online and/or via an App for example, Poker, Roulette, Blackjack
  14. Casino games played at a casino for example, Poker, Roulette, Blackjack
  15. Casino games (for example, Poker, Roulette, Blackjack) played on a machine and/or terminal in a venue for example, casino, bookmakers, club, pub
  16. Fruit and/or slot machines played in-person
  17. Fruit and/or slot machines played online/or via an App
  18. Football pools
  19. Private betting with for example, friends, family, colleagues
  20. Another form of gambling in the last 12 months

Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) questions

If respondents gambled in the past year, they were required to answer the following.

PGSI

In the last 12 months, how often…

  1. ...have you bet more than you could really afford to lose?
  2. ...have you needed to gamble with larger amounts of money to get the same feeling of excitement?
  3. ...have you gone back to try to win back the money you’d lost?
  4. ...have you borrowed money or sold anything to get money to gamble?
  5. ...have you felt that you might have a problem with gambling?
  6. ...have you felt that gambling has caused you any health problems, including stress or anxiety?
  7. ...have people criticised your betting, or told you that you have a gambling problem, whether or not you thought it is true?
  8. ...have you felt your gambling has caused financial problems for you or your household?
  9. ...have you felt guilty about the way you gamble or what happens when you gamble?

Responses include:

  1. Almost always
  2. Most of the time
  3. Sometimes
  4. Never

Impact of own gambling questions

If respondents gambled in the past year, they were required to answer the following.

Impact of own gambling questions – set 1

The next few questions are about the impact that gambling can have on some people. Please answer as honestly as you can. All of the answers you provide will be entirely confidential.

Thinking about your own gambling, how often in the last 12 months has your own gambling led you to...

  1. ...reduce or cut back your spending on everyday items such as food, bills and clothing?
  2. ...use savings or borrow money for example, from family and/or friends, credit cards, overdrafts and/or loans, money lenders?
  3. ...experience conflict or arguments with friends, family and/or work colleagues?
  4. ...feel isolated from other people, left out or feel completely alone?
  5. ...lie to family, or others, to hide the extent of your gambling?
  6. ...be absent or perform poorly at work or study?

Responses include:

  1. Very often
  2. Fairly often
  3. Occasionally
  4. Never

If respondents gambled in the past year, they were required to answer the following.

Impact of own gambling questions – set 2

In the last 12 months…

  1. …have you lost something of significant financial value such as your home, business, car or been declared bankrupt because of your own gambling?
  2. …has your relationship with someone close to you, such as a spouse, partner, family member or friend broken down because of your own gambling?
  3. …have you experienced violence or abuse because of your own gambling?
  4. …have you committed a crime in order to finance gambling or to pay gambling debts?

Responses include:

  1. Yes
  2. No

If respondents gambled in the past year, they were required to answer the following.

Impact of own gambling questions – set 3

In the last 12 months, has your own gambling led you to seek to help, support or information online, in-person or by telephone from…

  1. …mental health services?
  2. …food banks or other welfare organisations?
  3. …relationship counselling and support services?
  4. …gambling support services?

Responses include:

  1. Yes
  2. No

Gambling participation - Lottery follow-up questions

If respondents gambled in the past year on either tickets for the National Lottery draws – Lotto, Euromillions, Thunderball, Hotpicks, Set for Life or tickets for other charity lotteries, including the Health Lottery, Postcode Lottery and other lotteries, they were required to answer the following questions.

Frequency of purchasing lottery tickets in the past 4 weeks

In the past 4 weeks, how often, if at all, have you spent money on any of the following activities, including online and in person?

  1. Tickets for National Lottery draws – Lotto, Euromillions, Thunderball, Hotpicks, Set for Life online and/or via an App?
  2. Tickets for National Lottery draws – Lotto, Euromillions, Thunderball, Hotpicks, Set for Life in person for example, at a shop, garage?
  3. Tickets for other charity lotteries, including the Health Lottery, Postcode Lottery and other lotteries online and/or via an App?
  4. Tickets for other charity lotteries, including the Health Lottery, Postcode Lottery and other lotteries in person for example, at a shop, garage?

Responses include:

  1. Not in the past 4 weeks
  2. About once
  3. About once a fortnight
  4. About once a week
  5. A few times a week
  6. Everyday

If respondents had spent money on lottery tickets in the past 4 weeks either ‘about once’, ‘About once a fortnight’, ‘About once a week’, ‘A few times a week’, or ‘Everyday’, they were required to answer the following.

Lottery tickets purchased in the past 4 weeks

Which of the following, if any, lottery tickets did you buy in the past 4 weeks?

Please select all that apply

  1. Lotto
  2. Euromillions
  3. Thunderball
  4. Lotto Hotpicks
  5. Euromillions Hotpicks
  6. Set for Life
  7. Health lottery
  8. Postcode lottery
  9. Other lottery tickets, including for charity

(The following question was asked only on the online version)

If respondents had spent money on National Lottery draw tickets online in the past 4 weeks or spent money on a charity lottery online in the past 4 weeks, they were required to answer the following.

Lottery tickets bought through an app or website or smartphone

During the past 4 weeks, did you buy any lottery tickets through an App or website on a smartphone?

  1. Yes
  2. No

Gambling participation - Scratchcards and instant win games follow-up questions

If respondents gambled in the past year on either National Lottery scratchcards, Other scratchcards, National Lottery online instant win games or Other online instant wins, they were required to answer the following questions.

Frequency of purchasing scratchcards in the past 4 weeks

In the past 4 weeks, how often, if at all, have you spent money on any of the following activities, including online and in person?

  1. National Lottery scratchcards
  2. Other scratchcards
  3. National Lottery online instant win games
  4. Other online instant win games

Responses include:

  1. Not in the past 4 weeks
  2. About once
  3. About once a fortnight
  4. About once a week
  5. A few times a week
  6. Everyday

If respondents gambled in the past 4 weeks on National Lottery scratchcards, they were required to answer the following question.

Type of National Lottery scratchcard played in past 4 weeks

You mentioned that you have played National Lottery scratchcards in the past 4 weeks. Which of the following types of National Lottery scratchcards have you played in the past 4 weeks?

Please select all that apply

  1. £1 scratchcards
  2. £2 scratchcards
  3. £3 scratchcards
  4. £5 scratchcards
  5. Do not know or cannot remember the value

If respondents spent money on National Lottery instant wins in the past 4 weeks, they were required to answer the following.

Type of National Lottery online instant win played in past 4 weeks

You mentioned that you have played National Lottery online instant win games in the past 4 weeks. Which of the following types of National Lottery online instant win games have you played in the past 4 weeks?

Please select all that apply

  1. Online instant win games costing less than £1
  2. £1 online instant win games
  3. £2 online instant win games
  4. £3 online instant win games
  5. £5 online instant win games
  6. Do not know or cannot remember the value

(The following question was asked only on the online version)

If respondents had spent money on National Lottery online instant wins or other online instant wins in the past 4 weeks they were required to answer the following.

Online instant win games through an app or website on a smartphone

During the past 4 weeks, did you play online instant win games through an App or website on a smartphone?

  1. Yes
  2. No

Gambling participation - Betting follow-up questions

If respondents gambled in the past year on either Betting on sports and racing online and/or via an App, including virtual sports and/or races and e-sports, Betting on sports and racing in-person, for example at a bookmakers, including virtual sports and/or races and e-sports, Betting on the outcome of events such as TV shows, elections online and/or via an App, or Betting on the outcome of events such as TV shows, elections in-person, for example at a bookmakers, they were required to answer the following questions.

Frequency of betting in the past 4 weeks

In the past 4 weeks, how often, if at all, have you spent money on any of the following activities, including online and in person?

  1. Betting on sports and racing online and/or via an App, including virtual sports and/or races and e-sports
  2. Betting on sports and racing in-person, for example, at a bookmakers, including virtual sports and/or races and e-sports
  3. Betting on the outcome of events such as TV shows, elections online and/or via an App
  4. Betting on the outcome of events such as TV shows, elections in-person, for example, at a bookmakers

Responses include:

  1. Not in the past 4 weeks
  2. About once
  3. About once a fortnight
  4. About once a week
  5. A few times a week
  6. Everyday

If respondents spent money on betting in the past 4 weeks either ‘About once’, ‘About once a fortnight’, ‘About once a week’, ‘A few times a week, or ’ Everyday’, they were required to answer the following.

Whether have bet in play

In the past 4 weeks, have you bet in-play when betting on sports and/or races or the outcome of events? In-play betting means betting on things that happen once the game, match or event has started for example, who will win, next goal scorer, next point, next person to be eliminated.

  1. Yes
  2. No

If respondents answered ‘No’, they were routed to the ‘whether used a betting exchange’ question.

How often bet in play

How often have you bet in-play in the past 4 weeks? If you are unsure, please estimate

  1. About once
  2. About once a fortnight
  3. About once a week
  4. A few times a week
  5. Everyday

Typical number of in play bets

Thinking back over the past 4 weeks, how many in-play bets would you typically make once an individual game, match or event had started? If you are unsure, enter your best estimate

Please enter a number

If respondents spent money on betting in the past 4 weeks either ‘About once’, ‘About once a fortnight’, ‘About once a week’, ‘A few times a week’, 'Everyday’, they were required to answer the following.

Whether used betting exchange

Did you use a betting exchange in the past 4 weeks?

  1. Yes
  2. No

If respondents spent money on Betting on sports or racing online in past 4 weeks, or Betting on sports or racing in person past 4 weeks, either ‘About once’, ‘About once a fortnight’, ‘About once a week’, ‘A few times a week', 'Everyday’, they were required to answer the following.

Activities bet on in the past 4 weeks

Which of the following did you spend money betting on in the past 4 weeks?

Please select all that apply

  1. Live football
  2. Live tennis
  3. Live horse and/or dog racing
  4. Other live sports
  5. E-sports
  6. Virtual games and/or races
  7. None of these

(The following question was asked only on the online version)

If respondents spent money on Betting on sports or racing online in past 4 weeks, or Betting on outcomes in person past 4 weeks either ‘About once’, ‘About once a fortnight’, ‘About once a week’, ‘A few times a week’, 'Everyday’, they were required to answer the following.

Whether used app or website to place bets on smartphone

During the past 4 weeks, did you place a bet using an App or website on a smartphone?

  1. Yes
  2. No

Gambling participation - Bingo follow-up questions

If respondents gambled in the past year on either Bingo played online and/or via an app or Bingo played at a venue, for example a bingo hall, social club, they were required to answer the following questions.

Frequency of playing bingo in the past 4 weeks

During the past 4 weeks, how often, if at all, have you spent money playing bingo…

  1. …online and/or via an App?
  2. …at a venue for example, a bingo hall, social club?

Responses include:

  1. Not in the past 4 weeks
  2. About once
  3. About once a fortnight
  4. About once a week
  5. A few times a week
  6. Everyday

(The following question was asked only on the online version)

If respondents playing bingo online either ‘About once’, ‘About once a fortnight’, ‘About once a week’, ‘A few times a week’, 'Everyday’, they were required to answer the following.

Whether played bingo through an app or website on a smartphone

During the past 4 weeks, did you play bingo using an App or website on a smartphone?

  1. Yes
  2. No

Gambling participation – Casino follow-up questions

If respondents have gambled in the past year on either Casino games played online and/or via an App for example, Poker, Roulette, Blackjack, Casino games played at a casino for example Poker, Roulette, Blackjack or Casino games (for example Poker, Roulette, Blackjack) played on a machine and/or terminal in a venue for example casino, bookmakers, club, pub, they were required to answer the following questions.

Frequency of casino games in the past 4 weeks

During the past 4 weeks, how often, if at all, have you spent money playing casino games for example, poker, roulette, blackjack…

  1. …online and/or via an App?
  2. …in-person at a casino?
  3. …on a machine and/or terminal in a venue, for example, casino, bookmakers, club, pub?

Responses include:

  1. Not in the past 4 weeks
  2. About once
  3. About once a fortnight
  4. About once a week
  5. A few times a week
  6. Everyday

(The following question was asked only on the online version)

If respondents spent money on casino games online either ‘About once’, ‘About once a fortnight’, ‘About once a week’, ‘A few times a week', 'Everyday’, they were required to answer the following.

Live Dealer

When playing casino games for example, Poker, Roulette, Blackjack in past 4 weeks online and/or via an App, did you play with a live dealer?

  1. Yes, always
  2. Yes, but not always
  3. No, never

(The following question was asked only on the online version)

If respondents spent money on casino games online either ‘About once’, ‘About once a fortnight’, ‘About once a week’, ‘A few times a week’, 'Everyday’, they were required to answer the following.

Whether played casino through an app or website on a smartphone

During the past 4 weeks, did you play casino using an App or website on a smartphone?

  1. Yes
  2. No

Gambling participation – Fruit and/or slots follow-up questions

If respondents gambled in the past year on either Fruit and/or slot machines in-person or Fruit and/or slot machines played online and/or via an app, they were required to answer the following questions.

Frequency of fruit and/or slots in the past 4 weeks

During the past 4 weeks, how often, if at all, have you spent money playing fruit or slot based games…

  1. …online and/or via an App?
  2. …on a fruit or slot machine?

Responses include:

  1. Not in the past 4 weeks
  2. About once
  3. About once a fortnight
  4. About once a week
  5. A few times a week
  6. Everyday

If respondents spent money on fruit or slot machines either ‘About once’, ‘About once a fortnight’, ‘About once a week’, ‘A few times a week’, 'Everyday’, they were required to answer the following.

Where played fruit and/or slot games on machines

In the past 4 weeks, where did you play fruit or slot machines?

Please select all that apply

  1. Pub, bar or club
  2. Gaming centre or arcade
  3. Casino
  4. Bingo hall or social club
  5. Bookmakers
  6. Other, please specify

(The following question was asked only on the online version)

If respondents spent money on fruit and/or slots online in the past 4 weeks either ‘About once’, ‘About once a fortnight’, ‘About once a week’, ‘A few times a week’, 'Everyday’, they were required to answer the following.

Whether played fruit and/or slot using an app or website or smartphone

During the past 4 weeks, did you play online fruit and/or slot games using an App or website on a smartphone?

  1. Yes
  2. No

If respondents gambled in the past year on either football pools, private betting with for example friends, family, colleagues or another form of gambling, they were required to answer the following questions.

Football pools, private betting or another form of gambling in the past 4 weeks

In the past 4 weeks, have you spent money on any of these activities, including online?

  1. Football pools
  2. Private betting with for example, friends, family colleagues
  3. Another form of gambling in the past 4 weeks

Responses include:

  1. Yes
  2. No

(The following question was asked only on the online version)

If respondents spent money on football pools, private betting or another form of gambling in the past 4 weeks and spent money on another form of gambling in the past 4 weeks, respondents were required to answer the following question.

Money spent on other gambling activities in the past 4 weeks

During the past 4 weeks, which other gambling activities did you spend money on? (open text response)

Gambling attitudes questions

(Ask all)

The next few questions are about gambling advertisements and attitudes.

Gambling adverts

In the last month, have you seen or heard gambling being promoted in the following ways?

  1. Adverts on television
  2. Adverts on radio
  3. Sponsorship of sports people, teams or events by gambling companies
  4. Sponsorship of other TV programmes by gambling companies
  5. Adverts for gambling on social media such as YouTube, Facebook, Twitter and other social media
  6. Pop-up adverts online for gambling companies
  7. Adverts and promotions from gambling apps
  8. Famous people or influencers promoting gambling companies via social media (YouTube, Facebook, Twitter and so on)

Responses include:

  1. Yes
  2. No

(Ask all)

National Lottery views

To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statements about the National Lottery? Today I think that the National Lottery…

  1. ...is honest and trustworthy
  2. ...is well run
  3. ...contributes to causes that benefit the whole nation
  4. ...encourages people to play its games responsibly
  5. ...is innovative

Responses include:

  1. Agree strongly
  2. Agree slightly
  3. Neither agree nor disagree
  4. Disagree slightly
  5. Disagree strongly
  6. Do not know

Impact of someone else’s gambling questions

(Ask all)

Knowing people who gamble question

Does anyone you are close to gamble, even if only occasionally? By gambling we mean spending money on activities such as lotteries, betting, casino and so on.
Please select all that apply

  1. No
  2. Yes, a partner or spouse
  3. Yes, another family member (that is not your partner/or spouse)
  4. Yes, a friend
  5. Yes, someone else

If respondents answered yes to knowing someone who gambles, they were required to answer the following.

Living with someone who gambles

And do you live with this person or any of these people?

  1. Yes
  2. No

If respondents answered ‘No’ or no answer to knowing someone who gambles, they were routed to the General Health questions.

Impact of someone else’s gambling – set 1

The next few questions are about the impact that someone else’s gambling may have had on you, whether you live with them or not. Please answer as honestly as you can.

Thinking about someone else’s gambling, in the last 12 months…

  1. …have you borrowed money or sold anything to get money because of someone else’s gambling?
  2. …have you felt that someone else’s gambling has caused you any health problems, including stress or anxiety?
  3. …have you felt that someone else’s gambling has made you feel embarrassment, guilt or shame?

Responses include:

  1. Very often
  2. Fairly often
  3. Occasionally
  4. Never

If respondents answered 'Yes' to knowing someone who gambles, they were required to answer the following.

Impact of someone else’s gambling – set 2

In the last 12 months, how often has someone else’s gambling led you to…

  1. …reduce or cut back your spending on everyday items such as food, bills and clothing?
  2. …use your savings or increase your use of credit, such as credit cards, overdrafts and loans?
  3. …experience conflict or arguments with friends, family and/or work colleagues?
  4. …feel isolated from other people, left out or feel completely alone?
  5. …lie to family, or others, to hide the extent of someone else’s gambling?
  6. …be absent or perform poorly at work or study?

Responses include:

  1. Very often
  2. Fairly often
  3. Occasionally
  4. Never

If respondents answered 'Yes' to knowing someone who gambles, they were required to answer the following.

Impact of someone else’s gambling – set 3

In the last 12 months…

  1. ...has your relationship with someone close to you such as a spouse, partner, family member or friend broken down because of someone else’s gambling?
  2. ...have you lost something of significant financial value such as your home, business, car or been declared bankrupt because of someone else’s gambling?
  3. ...have you experienced violence or abuse because of someone else’s gambling?
  4. …have you committed a crime in order to finance someone else’s gambling or to pay their gambling debts?

Responses include:

  1. Yes
  2. No

If respondents answered 'Yes' to knowing someone who gambles, they were required to answer the following.

Impact of someone else’s gambling – set 4

In the last 12 months, has someone else’s gambling led you to seek help, support or information online, in-person or by telephone from…

  1. …mental health services?
  2. …food banks or other welfare organisations?
  3. …relationship counselling and support services?
  4. …gambling support services?

Responses include:

  1. Yes
  2. No

Health and wellbeing questions

(Ask all)

General Health

How would you say your health was in general?

  1. Very good
  2. Good
  3. Fair
  4. Bad
  5. Very bad

(Ask all)

Smoking status

Do you smoke cigarettes at all nowadays?

  1. Yes
  2. No

If respondents did not smoke, they were routed to the drinking frequency question.

Smoking frequency

On average, about how many cigarettes a day do you usually smoke?

(Please enter a number)

(Ask all)

Drinking frequency

How often did you have a drink containing alcohol in the past year?

  1. Never
  2. Monthly or less
  3. Two to four times a month
  4. Two to four times a week
  5. Four or more times a week

If respondents answered ‘Never’, to the drinking frequency question, they were routed to the Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (SWEMWBS)

Number of drinks

How many drinks did you have on a typical day when you were drinking in the past year?

  1. None, I do not drink
  2. 1 or 2
  3. 3 or 4
  4. 5 or 6
  5. 7 to 9
  6. 10 or more

If respondents answered ‘None, I do not drink’, they were routed to the SWEMWBS.

Drinking 6 or more alcohol drinks

How often did you have six or more drinks on one occasion in the past year?

  1. Never
  2. Less than monthly
  3. Monthly
  4. Weekly
  5. Daily or almost daily

(Ask all)

Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (SWEMWBS)

Below are some statements about feelings and thoughts.

Please select one answer per statement that best describes your experience of each over the last 2 weeks.

  1. I’ve been feeling optimistic about the future
  2. I’ve been feeling useful
  3. I’ve been feeling relaxed
  4. I’ve been dealing with problems well
  5. I’ve been thinking clearly
  6. I’ve been feeling close to other people
  7. I’ve been able to make up my own mind about things

Responses include:

  1. None of the time
  2. Rarely
  3. Some of the time
  4. Often
  5. All of the time

Scale used: Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (SWEMWBS) © NHS Health Scotland, University of Warwick and University of Edinburgh, 2008, all rights reserved.

(ASK ALL)

Self harm – question 1

In the last 12 months have you ever thought about taking your own life, even though you would not actually do it?

  1. Yes
  2. No

(Ask all)

Self harm – question 2

In the last 12 months, have you made an attempt to take your life, by taking an overdose of tablets or in some other way?

  1. Yes
  2. No

If respondents answered ‘No’ to both self harm question 1 and 2, respondents were routed to the Sex question.

Self harm - question 3

To what extent, if at all, was this related to your gambling?

  1. Not at all
  2. A little
  3. A lot

Demographic questions

(Ask all)

Sex

What is your sex?

A question about gender identity will follow.

  1. Male
  2. Female

(Ask all)

Gender

Is the gender you identify with the same as your sex registered at birth?

  1. Yes
  2. No, write in gender identity:

(Ask all)

Date of Birth

What is your date of birth?

Please enter day, month, year

‘This survey is for individuals aged 18 years and older. Please check the date of birth you have entered.’

If respondents did not provide an answer for the year, they were required to answer the following.

Age at last birthday

What was your age last birthday?

(Enter number in years)

(Ask all)

Ethnic Group

Choose one option that best describes your ethnic group or background

White

  1. English, Welsh, Scottish, Northern Irish or British
  2. Irish
  3. Gypsy or Irish Traveller
  4. Any other White background, please describe:

Mixed or Multiple ethnic groups

  1. White and Black Caribbean
  2. White and Black African
  3. White and Asian
  4. Any other Mixed or Multiple ethnic background, please describe:

Asian or Asian British

  1. Indian
  2. Pakistani
  3. Bangladeshi
  4. Chinese
  5. Any other Asian background, please describe:

Black or African or Caribbean or Black British

  1. African
  2. Caribbean
  3. Any other Black, African or Caribbean background, please describe:

Other ethnic group

  1. Arab
  2. Any other ethnic group, please describe:

(The following question was asked only on the online version)

(Ask all)

Sexual Orientation

Which of the following options best describes how you think of yourself?

  1. Heterosexual or Straight
  2. Gay or Lesbian
  3. Bisexual
  4. Other
  5. Prefer not to say

(Ask all)

(The following question was asked only on the online version)

Religion

What is your religion?

  1. No religion
  2. Christian (including Church of England, Catholic, Protestant and all other Christian denominations)
  3. Buddhist
  4. Hindu
  5. Jewish
  6. Muslim
  7. Sikh
  8. Any other religion, please describe:

(Ask all)

Number of adults in household

Including you, how many adults aged 18 or over are currently living in your household?

(Ask all)

Number of children in household

And how many children aged under 18 currently live in your household? If ‘none’, write in ‘0’.

(Ask all)

Current relationship status

What is your legal marital or registered civil partnership status?

  1. Never married and never registered in a civil partnership
  2. Married
  3. In a registered civil partnership
  4. Separated, but still legally married
  5. Separated, but still legally in a civil partnership
  6. Divorced
  7. Formerly in a civil partnership which is now legally dissolved
  8. Widowed
  9. Surviving partner from a registered civil partnership

(Ask all)

Income

Thinking of the income of your household as a whole, which of the groups on this list represents the total income of the whole household before deduction for income tax, National Insurance, and so on?

Please note that this includes income from benefits and savings.

  1. Monthly income before tax: £0 to £949 or annual income before tax: £0 to £11,399.
  2. Monthly income before tax: £950 to £1,349 or annual income before tax: £11,400 to £16,199.
  3. Monthly income before tax: £1,350 to £1,799 or annual income before tax: £16,200 to £21,599.
  4. Monthly income before tax: £1,800 to £2,249 or annual income before tax: £21,600 to £26,999.
  5. Monthly income before tax: £2,250 to £2,799 or annual income before tax: £27,000 to £33,599.
  6. Monthly income before tax: £2,800 to £3,349 or annual income before tax: £33,600 to £40,199
  7. Monthly income before tax: £3,350 to £3,999 or annual income before tax: £40,200 to £47,999
  8. Monthly income before tax: £4,000 to £4,999 or annual income before tax: £48,000 to £59,999
  9. Monthly income before tax: £5,000 to £6,599 or annual income before tax: £60,000 to £79,199.
  10. Monthly income before tax: £6,600 or more or annual income before tax: £79,200 or more.

(Ask all)

Tenure

In which of these ways is your accommodation occupied?

  1. Own it outright
  2. Buying it with the help of a mortgage and/or loan
  3. Part own and part rent (shared ownership)
  4. Rent it from a housing association or local council
  5. Rent it from another type of landlord
  6. Live here rent-free
  7. Squatting

(Ask all)

Respondent educational background

Do you have any educational qualifications for which you received a certificate?

  1. Yes
  2. No

If respondents answered ‘No’, they were required to answer the following question.

Do you have any professional, vocational or other work-related qualifications for which you received a certificate?

  1. Yes
  2. No

If respondents answered ‘Yes’ to having any educational qualifications for which they received a certificate or having any professional, vocational or other work-related qualifications for which they received a certificate, they were required to answer the following question.

Respondent highest qualifications at degree level or other

Was your highest qualification:

  1. At degree level or above
  2. Or another kind of qualification?

(Ask all)

Employment status last week

In the past 7 days, were you doing any of the following? Include casual or temporary work, even if only for one hour. Tick one option below.

  1. Working as an employee
  2. Self-employed or freelancer
  3. Temporarily away from work ill, or on holiday or temporally laid off
  4. On maternity or paternity leave
  5. Doing any other kind of paid work
  6. None of the above

If respondents answered, ‘None of the above’, they were required to answer the following.

Activity in the last week

Which of the following described what you were doing in the last seven days?

Tick one option below.

  1. Retired (whether receiving a pension or not)
  2. Studying
  3. Looking after home or family
  4. Long-term sick or disabled
  5. Other

(Ask all)

Cost of Living

in the past 4 weeks, have you spent more or less on the following activities than you normally would?

  1. Supermarket shopping
  2. Non-essential spending with other retailers in essence, clothes, shoes and so on
  3. Leisure activities in essence, hobbies, gym membership, cinema and so on
  4. Going to restaurants and bars
  5. Home entertainment and subscriptions in essence, Netflix, Sky and so on.
  6. Lottery tickets and/or scratchcards
  7. Other gambling activities (not including those above)
  8. Other charitable donations
  9. Home improvements and/or DIY

Responses include:

  1. More or increased spend
  2. Stayed the same
  3. Less or decreased spend
  4. Do not know

Appendix B - Postal questionnaire

This pdf file is provided for context only and may not be fully accessible for all viewers. Full details of the questions asked in the postal questionnaire are listed within GSGB Appendix A - Online questionnaire.