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B2 gaming machines (also known as fixed odds betting terminals – FOBT)

Gaming machines may contain games of more than one category, for example a B2 gaming machine may also offer category B3 and category C games.

Machine category

Max stake

Max prize

Permitted location

Max number of machines


Betting shops


Tracks with pool betting

2005 Act
large casino

2005 Act
small casino

1968 Act casino




2005 Act and 1968 Act casinos 


Betting shops


Tracks with pool betting

Max 4


Any combination of categories B to D

Max 150


Any combination of categories B to D


(subject to machine/table ratio 5-1)

Max 80


Any combination of categories B to D


(subject to machine/table ratio 2-1)

Max 20

any combination of categories B to D




any number of C or D machines instead

Licences and permits required

B2 machines can only be made available in casino, betting shops or at tracks with pool betting. So you must have either a 2005 Act casino operating licence, a 1968 Act casino operating licence, a general betting standard operating licence or a pool betting licence to make them available. 

If you are a machine manufacturer or supplier you will need a gaming machine technical licence, which type will depend on the nature of your business. 

Gaming machine technical standards

For the full details of the technical standards to which this category of machine must comply see Machine standards category B2 

All gaming machines sited on casino or betting premises must comply with our gaming machine technical standards

Test houses

Category B1, B2, and B3 gaming machines must be tested by an independent test lab to ensure they comply with the technical standards in full.

For categories A, B1, B2, B3, B3A, B4, C, D, server networked and downloadable, cashless payment, linked progressives and wireless networks refer to the Gaming machine testing strategy. 

Return to player (RTP)

B2 machines must display the “theoretical target percentage return to player”. 

RTP is an average measured over a large number of games and will vary over a typical session due to normal game volatility. It is a matter for the manufacturer to decide upon the game RTP and there is no minimum requirement but the minimum average return must be displayed to the player for the game. The value displayed must be verified either by the manufacturer or accredited test lab for categories B1, B2, B3 and B3A. 

There are duties to be paid on gaming machines so you should read this information in conjunction with the characteristics published by HMRC

VAT Betting and Gaming guidance