Literature review: Cashless and card-based technologies in gambling
This study was commissioned by the Gambling Commission, and
undertaken by Dr Jonathan Parke from the University of Salford,
Jane Rigbye of The Gambling Lab Ltd and Dr Adrian Parke from the
University of Lincoln.
This review aimed to improve the understanding of the
arguments for and against the introduction of cashless and
card-based technologies to reduce problem gambling and promote
The review identified current and emerging cashless and
card-based technologies, and considered approaches to regulation in
other jurisdictions. It also identified ongoing and planned
research, and made some recommendations for further research.
The full report can be found at:
The review found that evidence on the use and impact of
card-based and cashless technologies in gambling is
This limited evidence suggested that cashless and card-based
responsible gambling features (CCRGFs) were used by some, but not
all, gamblers. The features relating to transparency and
information (for example, statements showing how much people have
gambled) were more popular than more restrictive features such
as pre-commitment (for example, self-imposed limits on time and
spending) or self-exclusion.
Evidence also suggested that for players to start using new
technologies they need to be informed, the systems need to be
reliable and easy to use, the registration process needs to be
efficient, and security and confidentiality must be
Very few other gambling regulators had definitive
regulations on cashless and card-based technologies, despite being
aware of their potential to help problem gamblers. Most
jurisdictions remained cautious, and many were monitoring the
outcomes of ongoing research.
Some industry stakeholders did not feel that the costs or
challenges in adopting such technology would be proportionate with
the commercial opportunities available.
The review made a number of recommendations for further
research, including a feasibility study to assess the capabilities
of such technology, and pilot studies to explore player behaviour
and attitudes. The authors stressed the importance of
conducting research in real environments, such as live gambling
Page last reviewed: October 2013